Crimes against Intellectual and Industrial Property, Market and Consumers

Crimes against intellectual and industrial property, market, and consumers encompass a range of illegal activities that violate the rights of creators, innovators, businesses, and consumers. These crimes involve infringements upon intellectual property rights, deceptive trade practices, and actions that harm the market or deceive consumers.

  • Intellectual Property Crimes: These offenses involve violations of copyrights, trademarks, patents, and trade secrets. Intellectual property crimes include counterfeiting, piracy, unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material, trademark infringement, patent infringement, and theft of trade secrets. Such actions undermine the rights of creators and innovators by unlawfully exploiting their intellectual creations or innovations for financial gain.
  • Crimes against the Market: Crimes against the market involve fraudulent or deceptive practices that distort fair competition, manipulate market prices, or disrupt the market’s integrity. This category includes insider trading, market manipulation, false advertising, and antitrust violations. These activities harm the market’s efficiency, stability, and fairness.
  • Crimes against Consumers: These crimes target consumers by engaging in fraudulent, misleading, or unfair business practices. They include selling counterfeit or unsafe products, deceptive marketing, false labeling, price-fixing schemes, and scams that defraud consumers. Such actions harm consumers’ rights, safety, and trust in the marketplace.


These crimes are prosecuted under Article 270 and following of the Spanish Criminal Code, with severe imprisonment penalties and also elevated fines.